Improving Breast Cancer Risk Stratification Using Resonance-Frequency Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy Through Fusion of Multiple Classifiers
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This study aims to improve breast cancer risk stratification. A seven-probe resonance-frequency-based electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system was designed, assembled, and utilized to establish a data set of examinations from 174 women. Three classifiers, including artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), and Gaussian mixture model (GMM), were independently developed to predict the likelihood of each woman to be recommended for biopsy. The performances of these classifiers were compared, and seven fusion methods for integrating these classifiers were investigated. The results showed that among the three classifiers, the ANN yielded the highest performance with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), while SVM and GMM achieved AUCs of 0.80 and 0.78, respectively. Improvements of up to 3% were obtained using fusion of the three classifiers, with the largest improvement obtained using either a “minimum score” rule or a “weighted sum” rule. Comparing different combinations of two out of the three classifiers, the weighted sum rule provided the most robust and consistent results, with AUCs of 0.81, 0.83, and 0.82 for the different combinations of ANN and SVM, ANN and GMM, and SVM and GMM, respectively. Furthermore, at 90% specificity, the ANN, the weighted sum- and min rule-based classifiers, all detected 67% of the verified cancer cases as compared with 50, 50, and 60% detection of the high risk cases, respectively. The study demonstrated that REIS examinations provide relevant information for developing breast cancer risk stratification tools and that using fusion of several not-fully-correlated classifiers can improve classification performance.
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- Improving Breast Cancer Risk Stratification Using Resonance-Frequency Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy Through Fusion of Multiple Classifiers
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Volume 39, Issue 3 , pp 931-945
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- Electrical impedance spectroscopy
- Resonance frequency
- Breast cancer risk stratification
- Fusion of classifiers
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