, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 2155-2166,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 30 Apr 2010

Factors Affecting the Longevity and Strength in an In Vitro Model of the Bone–Ligament Interface


The interfaces between musculoskeletal tissues with contrasting moduli are morphologically and biochemically adapted to allow the transmission of force with minimal injury. Current methods of tissue engineering ligaments and tendons do not include the interface and this may limit the future clinical success of engineered musculoskeletal tissues. This study aimed to use solid brushite cement anchors to engineer intact ligaments from bone-to-bone, creating a functional musculoskeletal interface in vitro. We show here that modifying anchor shape and cement composition can alter both the longevity and the strength of an in vitro model of the bone–ligament interface: with values reaching 23 days and 21.6 kPa, respectively. These results validate the use of brushite bone cement to engineer the bone–ligament interface in vitro and raise the potential for future use in ligament replacement surgery.

Associate Editor Michael S. Detamore oversaw the review of this article.