Applications of Control Theory to the Dynamics and Propagation of Cardiac Action Potentials
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Sudden cardiac arrest is a widespread cause of death in the industrialized world. Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest are due to ventricular fibrillation (VF), a lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Electrophysiological abnormalities such as alternans (a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration) and conduction block have been suspected to contribute to the onset of VF. This study focuses on the use of control-systems techniques to analyze and design methods for suppressing these precursor factors. Control-systems tools, specifically controllability analysis and Lyapunov stability methods, were applied to a two-variable Karma model of the action-potential (AP) dynamics of a single cell, to analyze the effectiveness of strategies for suppressing AP abnormalities. State-feedback-integral (SFI) control was then applied to a Purkinje fiber simulated with the Karma model, where only one stimulating electrode was used to affect the system. SFI control converted both discordant alternans and 2:1 conduction block back toward more normal patterns, over a wider range of fiber lengths and pacing intervals compared with a Pyragas-type chaos controller. The advantages conferred by using feedback from multiple locations in the fiber, and using integral (i.e., memory) terms in the controller, are discussed.
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- Applications of Control Theory to the Dynamics and Propagation of Cardiac Action Potentials
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Volume 38, Issue 9 , pp 2865-2876
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Conduction block
- Purkinje fiber
- Lyapunov methods
- State feedback
- Proportional integral control
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Veterinary Research Tower, Box 17, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA
- 2. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA