, Volume 37, Issue 9, pp 1739-1756,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 27 Jun 2009

Non-Invasive Imaging of Cardiac Activation and Recovery

Abstract

The sequences of activation and recovery of the heart have physiological and clinical relevance. We report on progress made over the last years in the method that images these timings based on an equivalent double layer on the myocardial surface serving as the equivalent source of cardiac activity, with local transmembrane potentials (TMP) acting as their strength. The TMP wave forms were described analytically by timing parameters, found by minimizing the difference between observed body surface potentials and those based on the source description. The parameter estimation procedure involved is non-linear, and consequently requires the specification of initial estimates of its solution. Those of the timing of depolarization were based on the fastest route algorithm, taking into account properties of anisotropic propagation inside the myocardium. Those of recovery were based on electrotonic effects. Body surface potentials and individual geometry were recorded on: a healthy subject, a WPW patient and a Brugada patient during an Ajmaline provocation test. In all three cases, the inversely estimated timing agreed entirely with available physiological knowledge. The improvements to the inverse procedure made are attributed to our use of initial estimates based on the general electrophysiology of propagation. The quality of the results and the required computation time permit the application of this inverse procedure in a clinical setting.