Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 34, Issue 9, pp 1429–1441

Stereolithography of Three-Dimensional Bioactive Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Constructs with Encapsulated Cells

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10439-006-9156-y

Cite this article as:
Arcaute, K., Mann, B.K. & Wicker, R.B. Ann Biomed Eng (2006) 34: 1429. doi:10.1007/s10439-006-9156-y

Stereolithography (SL) was used to fabricate complex 3-D poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Photopolymerization experiments were performed to characterize the solutions for use in SL, where the crosslinked depth (or hydrogel thickness) was measured at different laser energies and photoinitiator (PI) concentrations for two concentrations of PEG-dimethacrylate in solution (20% and 30% (w/v)). Hydrogel thickness was a strong function of PEG concentration, PI type and concentration, and energy dosage, and these results were utilized to successfully fabricate complex hydrogel structures using SL, including structures with internal channels of various orientations and multi-material structures. Additionally, human dermal fibroblasts were encapsulated in bioactive PEG photocrosslinked in SL. Cell viability was at least 87% at 2 and 24 h following fabrication. The results presented here indicate that the use of SL and photocrosslinkable biomaterials, such as photocrosslinkable PEG, appears feasible for fabricating complex bioactive scaffolds with living cells for a variety of important tissue engineering applications.

Keywords

PhotocrosslinkingHydrogelsLayered manufacturingRapid prototypingTissue engineeringScaffold fabricationFibroblasts

NOMENCLATURE

DP

Penetration depth

EC

Critical exposure (energy/area)

Eav

Average energy exposure (energy/area)

PL

Power of the laser

VS

Speed of the laser

W0

Beam diameter

Wi

Initial weight, weight of the sample immediately after fabrication

Wd

Dry weight, weight of the sample after the excess water had evaporated

Ws

Swollen weight, weight of the sample after allowed to swell in distilled water

Wrd

Re-dry weight, weight of the sample after allowed to dry following swelling

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karina Arcaute
    • 1
  • Brenda K. Mann
    • 2
  • Ryan B. Wicker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, W. M. Keck Border Biomedical Manufacturing and Engineering LaboratoryUniversity of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA
  2. 2.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA