Engineering Luminescent Quantum Dots for In Vivo Molecular and Cellular Imaging
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- Smith, A.M., Ruan, G., Rhyner, M.N. et al. Ann Biomed Eng (2006) 34: 3. doi:10.1007/s10439-005-9000-9
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Semiconductor quantum dots are luminescent nanoparticles that are under intensive development for use as a new class of optical imaging contrast agents. Their novel properties such as optical tunability, improved photostability, and multicolor light emission have opened new opportunities for imaging living cells and in vivo animal models at unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution. Combined with biomolecular engineering strategies for tailoring the particle surfaces at the molecular level, bioconjugated quantum dot probes are well suited for imaging single-molecule dynamics in living cells, for monitoring protein–protein interactions within specific intracellular locations, and for detecting diseased sites and organs in deep tissue. In this article, we describe the engineering principles for preparing high-quality quantum dots and for conjugating the dots to biomolecular ligands. We also discuss recent advances in using quantum dots for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging.
KeywordsNanoparticlesNanotechnologyFluorescenceLiving cellsLiving animalsMolecular imagingCytotoxicityCationic peptidesBioconjugationDynamic light scattering
fluorescence resonance energy transfer