Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 52–62

Nano–Microscale Models of Periosteocytic Flow Show Differences in Stresses Imparted to Cell Body and Processes

  • Eric J. Anderson
  • Sathya Kaliyamoorthy
  • J. Iwan D. Alexander
  • Melissa L. Knothe Tate
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10439-005-8962-y

Cite this article as:
Anderson, E.J., Kaliyamoorthy, S., Alexander, J.I.D. et al. Ann Biomed Eng (2005) 33: 52. doi:10.1007/s10439-005-8962-y

Abstract

In order to understand how local changes in mechanical environment are translated into cellular activity underlying tissue level bone adaptation, there is a need to explore fluid flow regimes at small scales such as the osteocyte. Recent developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provide impetus to elucidate periosteocytic flow through development of a nano–microscale model to study local effects of fluid flow on the osteocyte cell body, which contains the cellular organelles, and on the osteocyte processes, which connect the cell to the entire cellular network distributed throughout bone tissue. For each model, fluid flow was induced via a pressure gradient and the velocity profile and wall shear stress at the cell-fluid interface were calculated using a CFD software package designed for nano/micro-electro-mechanical-systems device development. Periosteocytic flow was modeled, taking into consideration the nanoscale dimensions of the annular channels and the flow pathways of the periosteocytic flow volume, to analyze the local effects of fluid flow on the osteocyte cell body (within the lacuna) and its processes (within the canaliculi). Based on the idealized model presented in this article, the osteocyte cell body is exposed primarily to effects of hydrodynamic pressure and the cell processes (CP) are exposed primarily to fluid shear stress, with highest stress gradients at sites where the process meets the cell body and where two CP link at the gap junction. Hence, this model simulates subcellular effects of fluid flow and suggests, for the first time to our knowledge, major differences in modes of loading between the domain of the cell body and that of the cell process.

Computational fluid dynamicsBoneShearPressureLacunocanalicularLacunaCanaliculusOsteocyteMechanotransductionSubcellular domains

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric J. Anderson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sathya Kaliyamoorthy
    • 2
  • J. Iwan D. Alexander
    • 1
  • Melissa L. Knothe Tate
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringCase Western Reserve UniversityCleveland
  2. 2.Orthopaedic Research Center, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation/ND-20Cleveland
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringCase Western Reserve UniversityCleveland
  4. 4.Departments of Mechanical & Aerospace and Biomedical EngineeringCleveland