, Volume 33, Issue 9, pp 1142-1157

Hemodynamics and Complications Encountered with Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts as Vascular Access for Hemodialysis: A Review

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Abstract

This review article describes the current state of affairs concerning in vivo, in vitro and in numero studies on the hemodynamics in vascular access for hemodialysis. The use and complications of autogenous and non-autogenous fistulas and catheters and access port devices are explained in the first part. The major hemodynamic complications are stenosis, initiated by intimal hyperplasia development, and thrombosis. The different in literature proposed conceivable causes of intimal hyperplasia development like surgical interventions, compliance mismatch, wall shear stress (WSS) and shear rate, vessel wall thrill and blood pressure are discussed on the basis of in vivo, in vitro and in numero studies.