Review Article

Gynecological Surgery

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 93-102

First online:

Submucous myomas: diagnosis and therapy

  • Andreas L. ThurkowAffiliated withSt. Lucas Andreas Ziekenhuis Amsterdam Email author 
  • , Co´tje F. AdmiraalAffiliated withSt. Lucas Andreas Ziekenhuis Amsterdam
  • , Mark H. EmanuelAffiliated withSt. Lucas Andreas Ziekenhuis Amsterdam
  • , Paul J. M. van KesterenAffiliated withSt. Lucas Andreas Ziekenhuis Amsterdam
  • , Sebastiaan VeersemaAffiliated withSt. Lucas Andreas Ziekenhuis Amsterdam

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In this review problems concerning diagnosis and therapy of submucous myomas are discussed. In abnormal blood loss, especially during menstrual periods, it is probable that the submucous locations of fibroids have the strongest relationship with the symptoms. Both in diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities, in the past decennium, a wide range of fine tuning has been developed that has changed dramatically the optimal management of submucous myomas and, therefore, of bleeding abnormalities during premenopause. Over-treatment can thus be prevented: for instance, hysterectomy in menorrhagia caused by a small pedunculated submucous fibroid. New modalities of minimally invasive treatment, however, have specific intrinsic problems that justify the development of protocols for these techniques. For the diagnosis of submucous myoma, and preceding operative treatment, intrauterine diagnosis through ultrasound or hysteroscopic imaging is mandatory. Hysteroscopic treatment of submucous myomas is the method of preference, unless the abnormality is too large or too numerous. Various practical aspects of treatment are discussed. Surgery for abnormalities that are not included in the basic training package according to Goals for the education of gynaecologists, ought to be performed by a gynaecologist with additional training and experience.


Diagnostic imaging Endometrium Hysteroscopy (Leio)myoma Submucous myoma Surgical procedures Treatment outcome Ultrasonography Uterine haemorrhage Uterine neoplasms