Seasonal effects of PM10 concentrations on mortality in Tianjin, China: a time-series analysis
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- Li, G.X., Zhou, M.G., Zhang, Y.J. et al. J Public Health (2013) 21: 135. doi:10.1007/s10389-012-0529-4
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There are uncertainties regarding the modification effects of season and temperature on the relationship between air pollution and mortality. This study aims to examine the effects of season and temperature on mortality associated with particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10) in Tianjin, China.
Time-series analysis was used to explore the modification effects of season and temperature on the association between PM10 and cause-specific mortality in Tianjin between 2006 and 2009. The causes studied were overall non-accidental mortality and subcategories of cardiovascular, respiratory, cardiopulmonary, stroke, and ischemic heart diseases (IHD).
The association between PM10 and mortality showed a strong seasonal pattern and the effects of PM10 on cause-specific mortalities were strongest for high temperature days. Generally, the adverse effects were stronger in summer than for other seasons, except for respiratory mortality. In the summer period, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 at 0–1 days was associated with an increase in mortality for non-accidental (0.95 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.45, 1.45), cardiovascular (1.40 %, 95 %CI: 0.77, 2.03), cardiopulmonary (1.37 %, 95 %CI: 0.77, 1.98), IHD (1.55 %, 95 %CI: 0.73, 2.37), and stroke (1.27 %, 95 % CI: 0.37, 2.12) causes. The overall increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 was 0.42 % (95 %CI: 0.26, 0.58) for non-accidental, 0.41 % (95 %CI: 0.21, 0.62) for cardiovascular, 0.46 % (95 %CI: 0.26,0.65) for cardiopulmonary, 0.57 % (95 %CI: 0.30, 0.84) for IHD, and 0.32 % (95 %CI: 0.03,0.61) for stroke. At high temperatures (≥23.8 °C), a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 at 0–1 days was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.90 % (95 %CI: 0.61,1.19) for non-accidental, 1.01 % for cardiovascular, 1.40 % (95 %CI: 0.55, 2.27) for respiratory, 1.06 % (95 %CI: 0.71, 1.41) for cardiopulmonary, 1.47 % (95 %CI: 1.00, 1.94) for IHD, and 0.75 % (95 %CI: 0.24, 1.28) for stroke. In addition, the PM10 effects of high temperature days were stronger for those aged 65 years and over.
Season and temperature could modify the adverse effects of PM10. An increase in hot summer days caused by climate change may enhance the risks of air pollution on human health. More attention should be paid to older populations, especially in summer and days with high temperatures.