Journal of Public Health

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 237–244

Environmental risk factors affecting transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection in Egypt

  • Hala Ibrahim Awdalla
  • Moustfa Hassan Ragab
  • Lilian Nabil Hanna
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10389-009-0309-y

Cite this article as:
Awdalla, H.I., Ragab, M.H. & Hanna, L.N. J Public Health (2010) 18: 237. doi:10.1007/s10389-009-0309-y



Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection varies remarkably between and within populations suggesting the role of socioeconomic-related environmental factors.


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori among the studied population, to explore the effect of some environmental risk factors and lifestyle on the transmission of infection, and to study the association between this H. pylori bacterium and various noncontagious diseases.


This cross-sectional study was conducted over 6 months in two Egyptian health clinics. Two hundred apparently healthy individuals from rural (Unshass) and urban (Nasr City) areas voluntarily participated in this study. A full detailed clinical assessment in the form of a questionnaire was designed for each individual to determine risk factors with specific emphasis on age, sex, and residence. The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG antibodies was evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).


In the urban group 28 subjects (28%) were H. pylori positive versus 54 subjects (54%) in the rural group. A significant relationship between H. pylori and poor sanitary conditions was detected; there was an association between H. pylori prevalence and gastric diseases, hepatic diseases, and hyperglycemia suggesting diabetes.


H. pylori infection was nearly twice as high in the rural group than in the urban one.


H. pyloriRuralUrbanSociodemographic

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hala Ibrahim Awdalla
    • 1
    • 3
  • Moustfa Hassan Ragab
    • 1
  • Lilian Nabil Hanna
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Studies and ResearchAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Nuclear Materials AuthorityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Medical Science Department, Institute of Environmental Studies and ResearchAin Shams UniversityAbbassia, CairoEgypt