Assessment of global cardiovascular risk and risk factors in Portugal according to the SCORE® model
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- de Oliveira Martins, S., Serra e Silva, P., Papoila, A.L. et al. J Public Health (2008) 16: 361. doi:10.1007/s10389-008-0183-z
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality in European countries. This study aimed at estimating the 10-year risk of fatal CVD in Portuguese adults and to assess the prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors, according to the SCORE® risk prediction system.
Subjects and methods
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 60 community pharmacies (CP) from October 2005 to January 2006 in a sample of CP users (≥40 and ≤65 years). Data were collected by patient interviews using a structured questionnaire applied by a trained pharmacist.
A total of 1,043 individuals were enrolled in the study (participation rate: 91%). The mean age was 53.7 years (SD: 7.1) with a ratio men/women of 0.68. The average risk in the sample was 1.94 (minimum 0, maximum 28, SD =2.69). About 20% of the studied adults were at high risk, of which 39.4% were asymptomatic. CV risk was significantly higher in the oldest age group and in men (p < 0.05). The prevalence of main CV risk factors was: hypertension-54.8%; hypercholesterolemia-63.1%, diabetes-13.4%; smoking-10.4% and obesity–29.0%. About 1/3 of those asked had family history of premature CVD. Mean values of biochemical and clinical parameters were: systolic blood pressure (mmHg): 134.8 ± 19.7; diastolic blood pressure (mmHg): 81.0 ± 11.4; total cholesterol (mg/dl): 193.8 ± 34.6; body mass index (kg/m2): 28.0 ± 4.5.
According to SCORE®, about one-fifth of the individuals was classified as high risk, and 7.7% was asymptomatic. CV risk was significantly higher in the oldest age group (55–65 years old) and in men (p < 0.05). These results show a high prevalence of some risk factors, particularly hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.