, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 60–65

Spirula—a window to the embryonic development of ammonoids? Morphological and molecular indications for a palaeontological hypothesis

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10347-005-0054-9

Cite this article as:
Warnke, K. & Keupp, H. Facies (2005) 51: 60. doi:10.1007/s10347-005-0054-9


Nautilus is not suitable as a model organism to infer biological functions, embryonic development, or mode of life in ammonoids. A brief review of the available morphological data is given and molecular data are added to discuss the usefulness of Spirula as a biological proxy for ammonoids. Indeed, there are many morphological hints indicating that Spirula could be a useful model organism for approaching the embryonic development of ammonoids. The molecular data seem to support this hypothesis. However, a universal model character of Spirula cannot be detected as, e.g., the mode of feeding probably differs between Spirula and ammonoids.


ColeoidAmmonoidSpirulaLiving model organismPhylogenyDNA analysis

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Freie Universität BerlinFR PaläontologieBerlinGermany