, Volume 86, Issue 4, pp 677-683

Fumigant activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts and their effects on the acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities in adult Sitophilus zeamais

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Abstract

The insecticidal activity of Illicium verum Hook. f. against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were identified, and the underlying mechanisms were studied. Extracts from I. verum fruits in methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) were tested by fumigation in a hermetic container to determine their toxicity. The effects of the three extracts on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of S. zeamais were determined in vivo. All extracts showed strong fumigant activity. The fumigant effects were enhanced with increased dosage and prolonged exposure time. 1.25, 2.50, 5.00, 10.00, and 20.0 mg/l doses of the MA, EA, and PE extracts caused the mortalities from 8.37 to 90.26 %, 21.81 to 95.89 %, and 15.84 to 92.57 %, respectively, at 72 h after treatment. Consequently, the most effective dose of the MA, EA, and PE extracts is the 20.0 mg/l. The LD50 of the MA, EA, and PE extracts at 72 h after treatment were 7.10, 3.93, and 4.55 mg/l, respectively. The activities of AChE and GSTs were notably inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose- and time-dependent effects. The inhibition strength of the three extracts on AChE and GSTs activities were in the following order: EA extract > PE extract ≥ MA extract. Therefore, I. verum extracts could be explored as novel natural fumigants for the future control of stored-product insect pests.

Communicated by C. G. Athanassiou