, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 61–72

Reproductive parameters of female orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) 1971–2011, a 40-year study at Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10329-012-0331-5

Cite this article as:
Galdikas, B.M. & Ashbury, A. Primates (2013) 54: 61. doi:10.1007/s10329-012-0331-5


This study presents reproductive parameter data gathered by direct observation over a 40-year period (1971–2011) of the provisioned free-ranging population of orangutans at Camp Leakey in Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Age at first reproduction, interbirth interval (IBI), sex ratio at birth, and infant mortality for 19 female orangutans (11 first-generation wild-born ex-captive mothers and 8 second-generation mothers) are included in this analysis. Age at first reproduction among the first-generation mothers was similar to that among wild orangutans, while second-generation mothers had a significantly earlier age at first reproduction. IBIs were similar among first- and second-generation mothers and were significantly shorter than those recorded in studies of wild orangutan populations. There was an expected male-biased sex ratio at birth and a slightly higher than expected rate of infant mortality when compared to wild populations. Infant mortality was primarily seen among second-generation mothers who gave birth before the age of 12, and among first births of some first-generation mothers. These results lend support to the ecological energetics hypothesis, which predicts that increased diet quality leads to a faster rate of reproduction.


Orangutans Life history Reproductive parameters Interbirth interval Rehabilitation Mortality rates Age at first reproduction 

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchaeologySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Orangutan Foundation InternationalLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Anthropological Institute and MuseumUniversity of ZürichZürichSwitzerland