Short communication


, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 227-231

First online:

Clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) predation on proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia

  • Ikki MatsudaAffiliated withGraduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University Email author 
  • , Augustine TuugaAffiliated withSabah Wildlife Department, Wisma MUIS
  • , Seigo HigashiAffiliated withGraduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University

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In this study, we have reported two direct observations of individuals from a one-male group of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) being killed by clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) in the riverine forest along the Menanggul river, a tributary of the Kinabatangan river in Sabah, Malaysia. One of the two individuals was an infant female and the other was a juvenile female. Based on literature reviews and the observations reported here, we suggest that clouded leopard and crocodile might be significant potential predators of proboscis monkeys of any age or sex and that predation threats elicit the monkeys’ anti-predator strategies. Moreover, the observations of the monkeys’ behaviour when the group is attacked by a predator suggest that the adult males in one-male groups play an important role as protectors.


Predation Proboscis monkey Clouded leopard Behaviour