, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 157–160

A more detailed seasonal division of the energy balance and the protein balance of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan

  • Yamato Tsuji
  • Nobuko Kazahari
  • Masahiko Kitahara
  • Seiki Takatsuki
Short communication

DOI: 10.1007/s10329-007-0070-1

Cite this article as:
Tsuji, Y., Kazahari, N., Kitahara, M. et al. Primates (2008) 49: 157. doi:10.1007/s10329-007-0070-1


Nakagawa (Am J Primatol 41:267–288, 1997) reported that both the gross energy and gross protein intakes of an adult female Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan, were high in spring (March–May) and fall (September–November) and low in summer (June–August) and winter (December–February), and that these values reflected the seasonal differences in nutritional conditions (defined as whether the intakes of energy and protein satisfy the requirements). We estimated the energy balance (energy intake minus its expenditure) and the protein balance (protein intake minus its requirement) of the monkeys on Kinkazan Island every month over the course of 1 year (2004–2005) in order to verify Nakagawa’s conclusions. Like Nakagawa, we found that the energy balance of the monkeys in the fall was higher than in the summer and winter, whereas the protein balance in the fall was higher than in the winter. However, we did not find that spring energy and protein values were greater than summer and winter values. We also did not find that summer protein values were low. Both the energy balance and the protein balance changed rapidly within the same season. The energy intakes and the energy balances were higher in mid-spring and mid- and late fall and lower in late spring and early summer, whereas the protein intakes and the protein balances were higher in mid-spring and mid-summer and lower in early and mid-winter. Since Japanese macaques respond to seasonal changes in food supply by changing their foods, continuous data collection with short intervals is recommended in order to accurately document the energy and protein balances of the monkeys.


Nutritional condition Energy Protein Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata 

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yamato Tsuji
    • 1
    • 5
  • Nobuko Kazahari
    • 2
  • Masahiko Kitahara
    • 3
  • Seiki Takatsuki
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido UniversityHokkaidoJapan
  3. 3.Yamanashi Institute of Environmental SciencesYamanashiJapan
  4. 4.The University MuseumThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.School of Veterinary MedicineAzabu UniversityKanagawaJapan

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