, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 123–130

Additional materials of Myanmarpithecus yarshensis (Amphipithecidae, Primates) from the middle Eocene Pondaung Formation


    • Department of Zoology, Graduate School of ScienceKyoto University
  • Masanaru Takai
    • Primate Research InstituteKyoto University
  • Takehisa Tsubamoto
    • Primate Research InstituteKyoto University
  • Maung Maung
    • Department of GeologyUniversity of Mandalay
  • Chit Sein
    • Department of GeologyUniversity of Yangon
  • Nobuo Shigehara
    • Primate Research InstituteKyoto University
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10329-005-0159-3

Cite this article as:
Egi, N., Takai, M., Tsubamoto, T. et al. Primates (2006) 47: 123. doi:10.1007/s10329-005-0159-3


Myanmarpithecus yarshensis is an amphipithecid primate from the middle Eocene Pondaung Formation in Myanmar. It was previously known based on maxillary fragments with P4–M3 and mandibular fragments with C–P3 and M2–3. This study reports new materials for the genus, including a humeral head fragment, a lingual fragment of the right M2, a lingual fragment of the right M3, and a left I1. These new materials were collected from approximately the same point, and likely belonged to the same individual. The upper molar morphology and size of the new materials show similarity to those of the type specimen, indicating that the new materials can be assigned to M. yarshensis. The humeral head is the first postcranial element that is associated with dental materials for amphipithecids. The morphological similarity between the previously reported larger humerus and this specimen confirms the assignment of the former specimen to Amphipithecidae and suggests common locomotor adaptations in the family. The upper central incisor is large relative to the molar fragments, but is within the variation among extant platyrrhines. The tooth is spatulate-shaped and high crowned, and lacks the mesial process, indicating similarity to I1 of haplorhines and clear differences from that of adapoids. It has been suggested that amphipithecids, including Myanmarpithecus, have affinities with notharctine adapoids, but the morphology of I1 does not support the notharctine hypothesis of the Amphipithecidae.


Amphipithecidae Myanmarpithecus Phylogenetic status



American Museum of Natural History


National Museum of Myanmar, Primates


National Museum of Myanmar in Paleontology—Kyoto University (indicating that the fossil specimens stored in NMM has been serially cataloged by Kyoto University, Japan)


Province Anhui, China


University of California Museum of Paleontology

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre and Springer-Verlag 2005