Seed and pollen transmission of Apple latent spherical virus in apple
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- Nakamura, K., Yamagishi, N., Isogai, M. et al. J Gen Plant Pathol (2011) 77: 48. doi:10.1007/s10327-010-0275-9
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To examine whether Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) has spread among apple trees in an orchard, we surveyed 21 apple trees surrounding two ALSV-infected trees for virus infection using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). None of the 21 trees were infected, indicating that ALSV has not spread from the infected trees to the neighboring apple trees since it was first detected in 1984. We analyzed seed embryos and seedlings derived from infected trees and detected ALSV in 10 of 223 seed embryos (4.5%) and 10 of 227 seedlings (4.4%). From these results, we conclude that ALSV is seed-transmitted at a rate of ca. 4.5% in apple. We also analyzed seed embryos and seedlings from uninfected apple trees that were hand-pollinated with pollen from infected trees. We detected ALSV in only 1 of 260 seed embryos and in none of the 227 apple seedlings. This result indicated that the seed transmission rate via infected pollen is only 0–0.38%. In situ hybridization analysis of ALSV-infected apple flower buds showed that ALSV was present inside almost all pollen grains and in all ovary and ovule tissues, including the embryo sac and inner integument.