Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in optical communication systems
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
This paper presents an overview of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) fabrication principles and applications with emphasis on the chirped FBG used for dispersion compensation in high-speed optical communication systems. We discuss the range of FBG parameters enabled by current fabrication methods, as well as the relation between the accuracy of FBG parameters and the performance of FBG-based dispersion compensators. We describe the theory of the group delay ripple (GDR) generated by apodized chirped fiber gratings using the analogy between noisy gratings and superstructure Bragg gratings. This analysis predicts the fundamental cutoff of the high frequency spatial noise of grating parameters in excellent agreement with the experimental data. We review the iterative GDR correction technique, which further improves the FBG quality and potentially enables consistent fabrication of FBG-based dispersion compensators and tunable dispersion compensators with unprecedented performance.
- L. Gruner-Nielsen and B. Edvold, "Status and future promises for dispersion compensating fibers," ECOC, paper 6.1.1 (2002).
- Ouellette, F. (1987) Dispersion cancellation using linearly chirped Bragg grating filters in optical waveguides. Opt. Lett. 12: pp. 847
- R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic Press, 1999).
- Eggleton, B.J. (2000) Integrated tunable fiber gratings for dispersion management in high-bit rate systems. J. Lightwave Technol. 18: pp. 1418 CrossRef
- Hamilton, S.A. (2000) 100 Gb/s Optical Time-Division Multiplexed Networks. J. Lightwave Technol. 20: pp. 2086 CrossRef
- Hill, K.O. (1993) Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask. Appl. Phys. Lett. 62: pp. 1035 CrossRef
- T. Kreis, Holographic interferometry: principles and methods (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996).
- Mollenauer, L.F. (1977) Piecewise interferometric generation of precision gratings. Appl. Optics 3: pp. 555
- Eggleton, B. (1994) Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres. Electron. Lett. 30: pp. 1620 CrossRef
- Ibsen, M. (1995) Broadly tunable DBR fibre laser using sampled fibre Bragg gratings. Electron. Lett. 31: pp. 37 CrossRef
- Loh, W.H. (1999) Sampled fiber grating based-dispersion slope compensator. IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 11: pp. 1280 CrossRef
- Ishii, H. (1993) Super structure grating (SSG) lasers for broadly tunable DBR lasers. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4: pp. 393 CrossRef
- A.V. Buryak and D.Y. Stepanov, "Novel multi-channel grating devices," in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (Washington, DC: OSA, 2001), vol. 61, paper BThB3.
- Rothenberg, J. E. (2002) Dammann Fiber Bragg Gratings and Phase-Only Sampling for High Channel Counts. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14: pp. 1309 CrossRef
- Cole, M.J. (1995) Moving fibre/phase mask-scanning beam technique for enhanced flexibility in producing fibre gratings with a uniform phase mask. Electron. Lett. 31: pp. 1483 CrossRef
- R. Stubbe, B. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and A. Asseh, "Novel technique for writing long superstructured fiber Bragg gratings," in Photosensitivity and quadratic nonlinearity in glass waveguides: Fundamentals and applications, 22 (OSA, Washington D.C., 1995).
- Kashyap, R. (1996) 1.3 m long superstep-chirped fibre Bragg grating with a continuous delay of 13.5 ns and bandwidth 10 nm for broadband dispersion compensation. Electron. Lett. 32: pp. 1807 CrossRef
- M. Ibsen, M.K. Durkin, R. Feced, M.J. Cole, M.N. Zervas, and R.I. Laming, "Dispersion compensating fibre Bragg gratings", in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communication, Proceedings of SPIE, 4532, pp. 540-551, 2001.
- Ennser, K. (1998) .. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10: pp. 1476 CrossRef
- C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, G. Fischer, M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, "Influence of filter group delay ripples on system performance," in Proc. ECOC 1999, pp. 1410-1411.
- M. Ibsen, M.K. Durkin, R. Feced, M.J. Cole, M.N. Zervas, and R.I. Laming, "Dispersion compensating fibre Bragg gratings", in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communication, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4532, pp. 540-551, 2001.
- F. Ouellette, "The effect of profile noise on the spectral response of fiber gratings" in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Paper BMG13-2, Williamsburg, 1997.
- Feced, R. (2000) Effect of random phase and amplitude errors in optical fiber gratings. J. Lightwave Technol. 18: pp. 90 CrossRef
- R. Feced, J.A.J. Fells, S.E. Kanellopoulos, P.J. Bennett, and H.F.M. Priddle, "Impact of random phase errors on the performance of fiber grating dispersion compensators", Opcal Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 2001, Anheim, CA, Paper WDD89, 2001.
- Sumetsky, M. (2002) Theory of group delay ripple generated by chirped fiber gratings. Opt. Express 10: pp. 332
- Poladian, L. (1993) Graphical and WKB analysis of nonuniform Bragg gratings. Phys. Rev. E 48: pp. 4758 CrossRef
- Broderick, N.G.R. (1997) Theory of grating superstructures. Phys. Rev. E 55: pp. 3634 CrossRef
- Riant, I. (1999) Chirped fiber Bragg gratings for WDM chromatic dispersion compensation in multispan 10-Gb/s transmission. IEEE J. Select. Topics Quant. Electron. 5: pp. 1312 CrossRef
- Mihailov, S.J. (2000) Apodization technique for fiber grating fabrication with a halftone transmission amplitude mask. Appl. Opt. 39: pp. 3670
- Komukai, T. (2001) Very low group delay ripple characteristics of fibre Bragg grating with chirp induced by an S-curve bending technique. Electron. Lett. 37: pp. 449 CrossRef
- Buryak, A.V. (2002) Correction of systematic errors in the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings. Opt. Lett. 27: pp. 1099
- Sumetsky, M. (2003) Group delay ripple correction in chirped fiber Bragg gratings. Opt. Lett. 28: pp. 777
- Skaar, J. (2002) Reconstruction of gratings from noisy reflection data. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19: pp. 2229
- Sumetsky, M. (2003) High performance 40 Gbit/s fibre Bragg grating tunable dispersion compensator fabricated using group delay ripple correction technique. Electron. Lett. 39: pp. 1196 CrossRef
- Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in optical communication systems
Journal of Optical and Fiber Communications Reports
Volume 2, Issue 3 , pp 256-278
- Cover Date
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links