Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology

, Volume 41, Issue 11, pp 1591–1597

Fungi associated with drug recalls and rare disease outbreaks

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s10295-014-1503-7

Cite this article as:
Ahearn, D.G. & Doyle Stulting, R. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol (2014) 41: 1591. doi:10.1007/s10295-014-1503-7

Abstract

Fungi rarely cause disease outbreaks associated with use of microbe-contaminated drugs. These rare episodes typically involve a restricted spectrum of common environmental species with relatively low virulence, rather than classical pathogens. Review of data involving over-the-counter contact lens solutions and prescription drug-related recalls revealed six episodes during the past decade with significant adverse health and financial impact (including loss of vision and death). Contaminations involved fungi mostly identified with the genera Aspergillus, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Rhizopus. These organisms are noted for their capacity to produce resistant morphotypes (chlamydoconidia, ascospores) under various adverse conditions, generally with temperature survival/tolerances markedly in excess of maximal growth temperatures. High constituent levels of melanin, trehalose and heat-shock proteins facilitate differential survival of morphotypes following exposures to toxic chemicals and temperatures above 80 °C. Adverse environmental factors that induce resistant morphotypes are suggested to occur more readily in situ than during in vitro testing. Rare unexplained, sporadic drug contamination episodes with select thermotolerant fungi may relate, in part, to resistant dormant stages.

Keywords

Fungal drug contaminants FDA recalls Contact lens solutions Temperature tolerances 

Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology Department (D.G.A.)Georgia State UniversityAtlantaGA
  2. 2.Stulting Research Center (R.D.S.)Woolfson Eye InstituteAtlantaGA