Technical Report on Semiautomatic Segmentation Using the Adobe Photoshop Article First Online: 15 July 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Park, J.S., Chung, M.S., Hwang, S.B. et al. J Digit Imaging (2005) 18: 333. doi:10.1007/s10278-005-6704-1
The purpose of this research is to enable users to semiautomatically segment the anatomical structures in magnetic resonance images (MRIs), computerized tomographs (CTs), and other medical images on a personal computer. The segmented images are used for making 3D images, which are helpful to medical education and research. To achieve this purpose, the following trials were performed. The entire body of a volunteer was scanned to make 557 MRIs. On Adobe Photoshop, contours of 19 anatomical structures in the MRIs were semiautomatically drawn using MAGNETIC LASSO TOOL and manually corrected using either LASSO TOOL or DIRECT SELECTION TOOL to make 557 segmented images. In a similar manner, 13 anatomical structures in 8,590 anatomical images were segmented. Proper segmentation was verified by making 3D images from the segmented images. Semiautomatic segmentation using Adobe Photoshop is expected to be widely used for segmentation of anatomical structures in various medical images.
Key words Semiautomatic segmentation Adobe Photoshop MRIs CTs anatomical images segmented images three-dimensional images
The authors obtained consent for this research from concerned parties (a female subject and relatives of the deceased subject) after a full explanation about the nature of this procedure. In addition, we followed the cadaver management laws of South Korea.
Kerr, JP, Knapp, D, Frake, B, Sellberg, M 2000 True color surface anatomy. Mapping the Visible Human to patient-specific CT data Comput Med Imaging Graph 24 153 164 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Sachse, FB, Werner, CD, Meyer-Waarden, K, Dössel, O 2000 Development of a human body model for numerical calculation of electrical fields Comput Med Imaging Graph 24 165 171 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Hosono, M, Nakano, Y, Urayama, S, Konishi, J, Uokawa, K, Tanaka, Y 1995 Three-dimensional display of cardiac structures using reconstructed magnetic resonance imaging J Digit Imaging 8 105 115 PubMed Google Scholar
Qin, X, Ou, Z, Zhang, Y, Hou, J 2002 Data structure representation of 3D reconstruction system of medical images and surface model construction Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 19 239 243 PubMed Google Scholar
Uokawa, K, Nakano, Y, Urayama, S, Uyama, C, Kurokawa, K, Ikeda, K, Koito, H, Tanaka, Y 1997 An improved computer methods to prepare 3D magnetic resonance images of thoracic structures J Digit Imaging 10 85 95 PubMed Google Scholar
Anderson, JR, Wilcox, MJ, Barrett, SF 2002 Image processing and 3D reconstruction of serial section micrographs from Musca domestica's biological cells responsible for visual processing Biomed Sci Instrum 38 363 368 PubMed Google Scholar
Nip W, Logan C: Whole frog technical report Web site http://www-itg.lbl.gov/ITG.hm.pg.docs/Whole.Frog/Whole.Frog.html). Accessed August 11, 2004.
Quackenbush D, Ratiu P, Kerr J: Segmentation of the Visible Human datasets. The Visible Human Project Conference Proceeding, October 7 and 8, 1996
Xu, L, Chen, Y, Yang, H 2000 Digital photography and blurred image processing of retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 36 410 412 PubMed Google Scholar
Spitzer, VM, Whitlock, DG 1998Atlas of the Visible Human Male. Reverse Engineering of the Human Body Jones and Bartlett Publishers Massachusetts Google Scholar
Dean, D, Herbener, TE 2000Cross-Sectional Human Anatomy Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Baltimore, MD Google Scholar
Spitzer, VM, Ackerman, MJ, Scherizinger, AL, Whitlock, DG 1996 The Visible Human male. Technical report J Am Med Inform Assoc 3 118 130 PubMed Google Scholar
Park, JS, Chung, MS, Hwang, SB, Lee, YS, Har, DH, Park, HS 2005 Visible Korean Human. Improved serially sectioned images of the entire body IEEE Trans Med Imaging 24 352 360 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Pommert, A, Höhne, KH, Pflesser, B, Richter, E, Riemer, M, Schiemann, T, Schubert, R, Schumacher, U, Tiede, U 2001 Creating a high-resolution spatial/symbolic model of the inner organs based on the Visible Human Med Image Anal 5 221 228 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Schiemann, T, Freudenberg, J, Pflesser, B, Pommert, A, Priesmeyer, K, Riemer, M, Schubert, R, Tiede, U, Höhne, KH 2000 Exploring the Visible Human using the VOXEL-MAN framework Comput Med Imaging Graph 24 127 132 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Copyright information
© SCAR (Society for Computer Applications in Radiology) 2005