Journal of Digital Imaging

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 264–270

Effect of Viewing Angle on Luminance and Contrast for a Five-Million-Pixel Monochrome Display and a Nine-Million-Pixel Color Liquid Crystal Display


  • Dipesh H. Fifadara
    • Center for Devices and Radiological HealthFood and Drug Administration
  • Alice Averbukh
    • Department of RadiologyNorthwestern University Medical School
  • David S. Channin
    • Department of RadiologyNorthwestern University Medical School
    • Center for Devices and Radiological HealthFood and Drug Administration
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10278-004-1021-7

Cite this article as:
Fifadara, D.H., Averbukh, A., Channin, D.S. et al. J Digit Imaging (2004) 17: 264. doi:10.1007/s10278-004-1021-7


Digital imaging systems used in radiology rely on electronic display devices to present images to human observers. Active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) continue to improve and are beginning to be considered for diagnostic image display. In spite of recent progress, AMLCDs are characterized by a change in luminance and contrast response with changes in viewing direction. In this article, we characterize high pixel density AMLCDs (a five-million-pixel monochrome display and a nine-million-pixel color display) in terms of the effect of viewing angle on their luminance and contrast response. We measured angular luminance profiles using a custom-made computer-controlled goniometric instrument and a conoscopic Fourier-optics instrument. We show the angular luminance response as a function of viewing angle, as well as the departure of the measured contrast from the desired response. Our findings indicate small differences between the five-million-pixel (5 MP) and the nine-million-pixel (9 MP) AMLCDs. The 9 MP shows lower variance in contrast with changes in viewing angle, whereas the 5 MP provides a slightly better GSDF compliance for off-normal viewing.


Active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD)viewing anglegray-scale display function (GSDF)

Copyright information

© SCAR (Society for Computer Applications in Radiology) 2004