Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 124, Issue 1, pp 85–92

Molecular evolution of cryptochrome genes and the evolutionary manner of photoreceptor genes in Cardamine nipponica (Brassicaceae)

Regular Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10265-010-0361-2

Cite this article as:
Ikeda, H., Fujii, N. & Setoguchi, H. J Plant Res (2011) 124: 85. doi:10.1007/s10265-010-0361-2


Various photoreceptors in plants are used to monitor important environmental light signals and regulate plant development. Despite their functional importance, recent studies have demonstrated that red/far-red absorbing phytochromes or blue/UV-A absorbing cryptochromes are involved in local adaptation within a species’ range. In the present study, to exemplify the intraspecific photoreceptor evolutionary pattern, the genetic structures of cryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2) in Cardamine nipponica (Brassicaceae), of which PHYE, a gene coding one of the phytochromes, was found to be involved in local adaptation between central and northern Japanese populations. Although clear genetic differentiations between central and northern Japan were detected (CRY1: FST = 0.63, CRY2: FST = 0.53), overall nucleotide diversity was very low (CRY1: πTotal = 0.0014, CRY2: πTotal = 0.0013), and the polymorphism patterns were neutral (CRY1: Tajima’s D = 0.084, P = 0.32, CRY2: D = −0.014, P = 0.39). Therefore, the involvement of cryptochromes in the adaptation to local environments is difficult to postulate. Consequently, this study along with our previous findings suggest that intraspecific photoreceptor gene polymorphisms in C. nipponica were mostly suppressed by purifying selection due to their functional importance as photoreceptors, while some of the photoreceptors may play substantial roles in adaptation to local environments.


Cardamine nipponica Cryptochromes Local adaptation Photoreceptors Phytochrome 

Supplementary material

10265_2010_361_MOESM1_ESM.doc (36 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 36 kb)

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hajime Ikeda
    • 1
  • Noriyuki Fujii
    • 3
  • Hiroaki Setoguchi
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Human and Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyKumamoto UniversityKumamotoJapan