Regular Paper

Journal of Plant Research

, Volume 120, Issue 2, pp 281-290

First online:

The chloroplast genome from a lycophyte (microphyllophyte), Selaginella uncinata, has a unique inversion, transpositions and many gene losses

  • Sumika TsujiAffiliated withDivision of Functional Genomics, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University
  • , Kunihiko UedaAffiliated withDivision of Life Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University
  • , Tomoaki NishiyamaAffiliated withDivision of Functional Genomics, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University
  • , Mitsuyasu HasebeAffiliated withDivision of Evolutionary Biology, National Institute of Basic BiologyDepartment of Basic Biology, The Graduate University of Advanced Studies SOKENDAI
  • , Sumi YoshikawaAffiliated withAdvanced Genome Information Technology Research Group, RIKEN GSCDepartment of Computer Science, Graduate School of Information Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • , Akihiko KonagayaAffiliated withAdvanced Genome Information Technology Research Group, RIKEN GSCDepartment of Computer Science, Graduate School of Information Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • , Takumi NishiuchiAffiliated withDivision of Functional Genomics, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa UniversityDivision of Life Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University
  • , Kazuo YamaguchiAffiliated withDivision of Functional Genomics, Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa UniversityDivision of Life Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University Email author 

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Abstract

We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome of Selaginella uncinata, a lycophyte belonging to the basal lineage of the vascular plants. The circular double-stranded DNA is 144,170 bp, with an inverted repeat of 25,578 bp separated by a large single copy region (LSC) of 77,706 bp and a small single copy region (SSC) of 40,886 bp. We assigned 81 protein-coding genes including four pseudogenes, four rRNA genes and only 12 tRNA genes. Four genes, rps15, rps16, rpl32 and ycf10, found in most chloroplast genomes in land plants were not present in S. uncinata. While gene order and arrangement of the chloroplast genome of another lycophyte, Hupertzia lucidula, are almost the same as those of bryophytes, those of S. uncinata differ considerably from the typical structure of bryophytes with respect to the presence of a unique 20 kb inversion within the LSC, transposition of two segments from the LSC to the SSC and many gene losses. Thus, the organization of the S. uncinata chloroplast genome provides a new insight into the evolution of lycophytes, which were separated from euphyllophytes approximately 400 million years ago.

Keywords

Chloroplast Lycophyte Pseudogene Selaginella uncinata Selaginellaceae tRNA genes