Elevation of human leukocyte antigen-G expression is associated with the severe encephalitis associated with neurogenic pulmonary edema caused by Enterovirus 71
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- Zheng, XQ., Chen, XQ., Gao, Y. et al. Clin Exp Med (2014) 14: 161. doi:10.1007/s10238-013-0237-6
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can develop devastating clinical outcomes such as brain stem encephalitis (BE) and pulmonary edema (PE). Alteration of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) expression or cytokine production was considered playing important roles in virus-related pathogenesis. However, clinical relevance of HLA-G in EV71 infection remains unknown. In the current study, patients were stratified by disease severity as BE (n = 107) and PE (n = 18). HLA-G expression on peripheral blood monocytes from patients with BE (n = 15), patients with PE (n = 15) and control subjects (n = 31) was analyzed with flow cytometry. Plasma soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) (in 67 BE, 18 PE and 120 control subjects), IL-6 and IL-10 (in 50 patients with BE, 18 patients with PE and 45 control subjects) were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data showed that the percentage of HLA-G-positive monocytes (mean 7.76 vs 3.68 %, p < 0.001), levels for sHLA-G (median 129.2 vs 70.6 U/ml, p < 0.001), IL-10 (median 160.5 vs 29.5 pg/ml, p < 0.001) and IL-6 (median 20.50 vs 5.21 pg/ml, p = 0.002) was significantly higher in patients with PE than in patients with BE. Taken together, our findings indicated that elevation of HLA-G expression on monocytes, plasma sHLA-G, IL-10 and IL-6 levels was associated with PE in patients infected with EV71.