Clinical and Experimental Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 77–82

Local resistance patterns to antimicrobials in internal medicine: a focused report from the REGIMEN (REGistro Infezioni in MEdicina INterna) study


    • Department of Clinical MedicineHospital of Livorno
  • Riccardo Pardelli
    • Infectious Disease UnitHospital of Livorno
  • Spartaco Sani
    • Infectious Disease UnitHospital of Livorno
  • Nicola Mumoli
    • Department of Clinical MedicineHospital of Livorno
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10238-012-0219-0

Cite this article as:
Cei, M., Pardelli, R., Sani, S. et al. Clin Exp Med (2014) 14: 77. doi:10.1007/s10238-012-0219-0


The treatment for infections in hospitalized patients can be summarized in the timely start of empirical therapy, followed by adjustment on the basis of isolates and microbial susceptibilities. Initial therapy may be based on international guidelines. However, to know local frequencies of bacterial and fungal strains together with patterns of drug resistance should be a better approach to therapy. REGIMEN is a retrospective observational study of all consecutive recorded bacterial and fungal isolates, collected between October 2009 and August 2011 from patients admitted in a 53-bedded ward of internal medicine of a non-teaching Italian hospital. We investigated type of samples and of microorganisms, patterns of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 504 samples were examined (244 from urine, 189 from blood and 71 from skin and various exudates). Participants were old (mean age, 83 years), and so overall mortality was high (20 %). There were high frequencies of drug resistance; only 27.9 % of urinary gram-negatives and 52.6 % of blood gram-negatives were susceptible to levofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles compatible with the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were present in 64.2 % of gram-negative strains, and 10.1 % were also resistant to carbapenems. ESKAPE organisms account for a third of all bacterial infections. Local patterns of drug resistance should influence empirical antibiotic therapy for patients admitted in internal medicine wards, where mortality is high.


Bacterial infectionsAntibacterial agentsDrug resistance

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012