, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 69-77
Date: 21 Jun 2011

Detection methods of ZAP-70 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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Abstract

The clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly heterogeneous, with some patients experiencing rapid disease progression and others living for decades without requiring treatment. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) mutation status is a powerful prognostic factor in patients with CLL. The presence or absence of IGHV mutation status is currently the gold-standard prognostic factor, but this technique is labor-intensive and costly. The expression of ζ-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP-70), detected by flow cytometry, has been served as a potential surrogate for the absence of IGHV mutation status since 2003. Given the current problems with the standardization of ZAP-70 assessment by flow cytometry, this chapter reviews the analysis of ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometry and the relative experimental conditions using the associated publications for “ZAP-70” and “detection method” on Medline since 2003. Thus, mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ratio method yielded a more reproducible and easily adaptable method to routine use in the clinical diagnostic laboratory. In conclusion, though ZAP-70 is a valuable prognostic factor in CLL, detection methods of ZAP-70 remain to be fully standardized.