Regional and global effects of southern ocean constraints in a global model
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- Schodlok, M.P., Wenzel, M., Schröter, J.G. et al. Ocean Dynamics (2008) 58: 155. doi:10.1007/s10236-008-0143-8
Global ocean circulation models do not usually take high-latitude processes into account in an adequate form due to a limited model domain or insufficient resolution. Without the processes in key areas contributing to the lower part of the global thermohaline circulation, the characteristics and flow of deep and bottom waters often remain unrealistic in these models. In this study, various sections of the Bremerhaven Regional Ice Ocean Simulation model results are combined with a global inverse model by using temperature, salinity, and velocity constraints for the Hamburg Large Scale Geostrophic ocean general circulation model. The differences between the global model with and without additional constraints from the regional model demonstrate that the Weddell Sea circulation exerts a significant influence on the course of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with consequences for Southern Ocean water mass characteristics and the spreading of deep and bottom waters in the South Atlantic. The influence of the Ross Sea is found to be less important in terms of global influences. However, regional changes in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean are found to be of Ross Sea origin. The additional constraints change the hydrographic conditions of the global model in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in such a way that transport values, e.g., in Drake Passage no longer need to be prescribed to obtain observed transports. These changes not only improve the path and transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current but affect the meso- and large-scale circulation. With a higher (lower) mean Drake Passage transport, the mean Weddell Gyre transport is lower (higher). Furthermore, an increase (decrease) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current leads to a decrease (increase) of the circum-Australian flow, i.e., a decrease (increase) of the Indonesian Throughflow.