Regular Contribution

International Journal of Information Security

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 231-251

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

A log mining approach for process monitoring in SCADA

  • Dina HadžiosmanovićAffiliated withUniversity of Twente Email author 
  • , Damiano BolzoniAffiliated withUniversity of Twente
  • , Pieter H. HartelAffiliated withUniversity of Twente


SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems are used for controlling and monitoring industrial processes. We propose a methodology to systematically identify potential process-related threats in SCADA. Process-related threats take place when an attacker gains user access rights and performs actions, which look legitimate, but which are intended to disrupt the SCADA process. To detect such threats, we propose a semi-automated approach of log processing. We conduct experiments on a real-life water treatment facility. A preliminary case study suggests that our approach is effective in detecting anomalous events that might alter the regular process workflow.


ICS SCADA Security SCADA log Log analysis Frequent pattern mining Process related threat HAZOP PHEA MELISSA