Limnological characteristics of subtropical Lakes Phewa, Begnas, and Rupa in Pokhara Valley, Nepal
- Cite this article as:
- Rai, A. Limnology (2000) 1: 33. doi:10.1007/s102010070027
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Limnological characteristics were studied and analyzed in the subtropical Lakes Phewa, Begnas, and Rupa of Pokhara Valley, Nepal, from 1993 to 1997. The annual water temperature ranged from 12° to 29°C in all lakes. Lake Phewa and Lake Begnas were monomictic and anoxic in the hypolimnion during thermal stratification from April to September. Dissolved oxygen was drastically depleted in April and/or May in shallow Lake Rupa when the macrophyte community began to decompose. NH4+-N accumulated below 5 m during March–September when dissolved oxygen was depleted in Lakes Phewa and Begnas. The PC : PP ratio was higher, but the PC : PN and PN : PP ratios were close to the Redfield ratio (106C : 16N : 1P) in Lakes Phewa and Begnas, denoting that P was limited. Annual net primary production showed that the lakes were productive but will tend to become heterotrophic in the future. The seasonal variation of chlorophyll a concentration was high, but its annual variation was low. Ceratium hirundinella and Peridinium spp. in Lake Phewa, Microcystis aeruginosa and Aulacoseira granulata in Lake Begnas, and Tabellaria fenestra in Lake Rupa were the dominant species. The zooplankton population and species varied irregularly. On the basis of chlorophyll a concentration in the euphotic zone and phytoplankton species composition, the lakes seem to be oligoeutrophic and to have some characteristics of temperate lakes rather than tropical lakes.