Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 04 Jun 2014

Cardiovascular remodeling during long-term nocturnal home hemodialysis



Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney failure. Nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHD) is a form of kidney replacement therapy whereby hemodialysis is performed for at least 6-h overnight, at least 4 days per week. Little is known about the effects of NHD on cardiovascular remodeling as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR).


The primary objective of the study was to determine the long-term effects of NHD on cardiovascular remodeling using different imaging modalities over a one-year follow-up.

Methods and results

A total of 11 patients were included in the study (6 males, mean age 48 ± 16 years) between 2009 and 2011 inclusive at a single tertiary care center. All patients underwent TTE and CMR at baseline and after 1 year of NHD. Left ventricular mass index decreased significantly at 1 year by both TTE (152 ± 7–129 ± 8 g/m2, p < 0.05) and CMR (162 ± 4–124 ± 4 g/m2, p < 0.05). There was also a significant decrease in both left and right atrial volume as well as in right ventricular mass index over 1 year of follow-up. Diastolic dysfunction, graded from 0 to 4, improved from a baseline grade of 3.4 to 1.2 at 1-year follow-up.


Long-term nocturnal hemodialysis leads to favorable cardiovascular remodeling with a reduction in cavity dimensions, regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, and an improvement in diastolic function, as assessed by both TTE and CMR.