Clinicopathological findings of immunoglobulin G4-related kidney disease
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- Nishi, S., Imai, N., Yoshida, K. et al. Clin Exp Nephrol (2011) 15: 810. doi:10.1007/s10157-011-0526-x
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Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related kidney disease characterizing tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is an organ complication recognized in IgG4-related systemic diseases that has some unique aspects compared to other types of TIN. TIN lesions in the kidney can be tumor-like, focal or diffuse. Abnormal urinalysis is usually mild or absent even in the cases with deteriorated renal dysfunction. Some cases are accidentally diagnosed from radiological findings without renal dysfunction and/or abnormal urinalysis. The typical pathological findings of TIN are unique fibrosis and infiltration of massive lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells. Glomerular lesions are rare but the complication of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and membranous nephropathy is occasionally reported. Pathogenic mechanisms are unclear until now; however, auto-immune and allergic mechanisms have been suspected from laboratory data. The initial response to steroid agents is generally favorable; however, recurrence is possible after the discontinuation of steroid treatment. Long-term follow-up is necessary with continuous systemic checks for organ disorders due to IgG4-related systemic diseases.