Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 248–257

Management of anemia in chronic kidney disease patients: baseline findings from Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort Study


    • Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineShowa University School of Medicine
  • Hirofumi Makino
    • Department of Medicine and Clinical ScienceOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Seiichi Matsuo
    • Department of NephrologyNagoya University Graduate School of Medicine
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
    • The Third Department of Internal MedicineFukushima Medical College
  • Enyu Imai
    • Department of NephrologyNagoya University Graduate School of Medicine
  • Kosaku Nitta
    • Department of Medicine, Kidney CenterTokyo Women’s Medical University
  • Yasuo Ohashi
    • Department of Biostatistics, School of Public HealthThe University of Tokyo
  • Akira Hishida
    • First Department of MedicineHamamatsu University School of Medicine
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort Study Group
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10157-010-0396-7

Cite this article as:
Akizawa, T., Makino, H., Matsuo, S. et al. Clin Exp Nephrol (2011) 15: 248. doi:10.1007/s10157-010-0396-7



Anemia is a factor that affects the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, there are only a few reports on the management of anemia in Japanese patients with CKD who are not on dialysis.


We investigated the prevalence, related factors and management of anemia in CKD stage 3–5 patients in Japan based on the baseline data obtained from a prospective cohort study (Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort). Anemia was defined as having a hemoglobin (Hb) level of <11 g/dL or receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy.


The result indicated that 946 out of 2,930 patients had anemia. Of these 946 patients, 385 were receiving ESA treatment for anemia and had an Hb level of 10.28 ± 1.19 g/dL (mean ± SD). The percentage of these patients with an Hb level above the target of 11 g/dL proposed for treatment by the Japanese guidelines, and above the maintenance level of 10 g/dL approved for ESA therapy in Japan, was only 30.1 and 61.6%, respectively. In contrast, the percentage of patients receiving no ESA therapy was 67.6 and 55.7%, respectively, among those with an Hb level of <11 and <10 g/dL.


These data suggested that prevalence of anemia was high in Japanese patients with CKD stage 3–5, that the percentage of patients receiving ESA was low among those who required ESA, and that a large number of patients receiving ESA failed to maintain the recommended level of Hb.


CKDErythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA)Hemoglobin (Hb)Anemia

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2011