Original Article

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 248-257

Management of anemia in chronic kidney disease patients: baseline findings from Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort Study

  • Tadao AkizawaAffiliated withDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine Email author 
  • , Hirofumi MakinoAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • , Seiichi MatsuoAffiliated withDepartment of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Tsuyoshi WatanabeAffiliated withThe Third Department of Internal Medicine, Fukushima Medical College
  • , Enyu ImaiAffiliated withDepartment of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine
  • , Kosaku NittaAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women’s Medical University
  • , Yasuo OhashiAffiliated withDepartment of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo
  • , Akira HishidaAffiliated withFirst Department of Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
  • , Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort Study Group

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Anemia is a factor that affects the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, there are only a few reports on the management of anemia in Japanese patients with CKD who are not on dialysis.


We investigated the prevalence, related factors and management of anemia in CKD stage 3–5 patients in Japan based on the baseline data obtained from a prospective cohort study (Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort). Anemia was defined as having a hemoglobin (Hb) level of <11 g/dL or receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy.


The result indicated that 946 out of 2,930 patients had anemia. Of these 946 patients, 385 were receiving ESA treatment for anemia and had an Hb level of 10.28 ± 1.19 g/dL (mean ± SD). The percentage of these patients with an Hb level above the target of 11 g/dL proposed for treatment by the Japanese guidelines, and above the maintenance level of 10 g/dL approved for ESA therapy in Japan, was only 30.1 and 61.6%, respectively. In contrast, the percentage of patients receiving no ESA therapy was 67.6 and 55.7%, respectively, among those with an Hb level of <11 and <10 g/dL.


These data suggested that prevalence of anemia was high in Japanese patients with CKD stage 3–5, that the percentage of patients receiving ESA was low among those who required ESA, and that a large number of patients receiving ESA failed to maintain the recommended level of Hb.


CKD Erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) Hemoglobin (Hb) Anemia