Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, 13:621

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population


    • Department of NephrologyOsaka University Graduate School of Medicine
  • Masaru Horio
    • Department of Functional Diagnostic ScienceOsaka University Graduate School of Medicine
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
    • Third Department of MedicineFukushima Medical University
  • Kunitoshi Iseki
    • Dialysis UnitUniversity Hospital of The Ryukyus
  • Kunihiro Yamagata
    • Department of Nephrology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human SciencesUniversity of Tsukuba
  • Shigeko Hara
    • Health Medical CenterToranomon Hospital
  • Nobuyuki Ura
    • Department of General MedicineTeine Keijinkai Hospital
  • Yutaka Kiyohara
    • Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical SciencesKyushu University
  • Toshiki Moriyama
    • Healthcare CenterOsaka University
  • Yasuhiro Ando
    • Department of NephrologyJichi Medical School
  • Shoichi Fujimoto
    • First Department of MedicineMiyazaki University
  • Tsuneo Konta
    • First Department of MedicineYamagata University
  • Hitoshi Yokoyama
    • Division of NephrologyKanazwa Medical University
  • Hirofumi Makino
    • Department of Nephrology, Diabetes and RheumatologyOkayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Akira Hishida
    • First Department of MedicineHamamatsu University School of Medicine
  • Seiichi Matsuo
    • Department of NephrologyNagoya University Graduate School of Medicine
Original article

DOI: 10.1007/s10157-009-0199-x

Cite this article as:
Imai, E., Horio, M., Watanabe, T. et al. Clin Exp Nephrol (2009) 13: 621. doi:10.1007/s10157-009-0199-x



We previously estimated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3–5 at 19.1 million based on data from the Japanese annual health check program for 2000–2004 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation multiplied by the coefficient 0.881 for the Japanese population. However, this equation underestimates the GFR, particularly for glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of over 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. We did not classify the participants as CKD stages 1 and 2 because we did not obtain proteinuria data for all of the participants. We re-estimated the prevalence of CKD by measuring proteinuria using a dipstick test and by calculating the GFR using a new equation that estimates GFR based on data from the Japanese annual health check program in 2005.


Data were obtained for 574,024 (male 240,594, female 333,430) participants over 20 years old taken from the general adult population, who were from 11 different prefectures in Japan (Hokkaido, Yamagata, Fukushima, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Tokyo, Kanazawa, Osaka, Fukuoka, Miyazaki and Okinawa) and took part in the annual health check program in 2005. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each participant was computed from the serum creatinine value using a new equation: GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) = 194 × Age−0.287 × S-Cr−1.094 (if female × 0.739). The CKD population nationwide was calculated using census data from 2005. We also recalculated the prevalence of CKD in Japan assuming that the age composition of the population was same as that in the USA.


The prevalence of CKD stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 + 5 were 0.6, 1.7, 10.4 and 0.2% in the study population, which resulted in predictions of 0.6, 1.7, 10.7 and 0.2 million patients, respectively, nationwide. The prevalence of low GFR was significantly higher in the hypertensive and proteinuric populations than it was in the populations without proteinuria or hypertension. The prevalence rate of CKD in Japan was similar to that in the USA when the Japanese general population was age adjusted to the US 2005 population estimate.


About 13% of the Japanese adult population—approximately 13.3 million people—were predicted to have CKD in 2005.


Chronic kidney diseaseJapaneseeGFRSerum creatinine

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2009