, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 152-155

A boy undergoing maintenance hemodialysis who developed mediastinal lymph node tuberculosis

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The incidence of tuberculosis (TBC) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis is reported to be higher than that in the general population. We report an 8-year-old boy receiving such treatment for chronic renal failure who developed mediastinal lymph node TBC. He showed only intermittent fever, recurring every 2 weeks, with no other symptoms suggesting TBC. Although staining and culture of pharyngeal swab and gastric juice specimens failed to provide evidence of TBC, a lymph node biopsy specimen disclosed typical pathologic findings of tuberculoma, including caseating granulomas. Antituberculous therapy with isoniazid (INH), rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol was given for 12 months, resulting in complete resolution of the TBC, with no subsequent recurrence. To our knowledge, mediastinal lymph node localization of TBC is relatively rare, in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis, especially in a child.