, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 173-178

High-magnification chromoscopic pouchoscopy: a novel in vivo technique for surveillance of the anal transition zone and columnar cuff following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

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Abstract

Background

Persistence of underlying disease in the residual rectal mucosa and anal transition zone (ATZ) following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis provides a site for potential malignancy. For this reason endoscopic surveillance is performed, although conventional assessment may be unreliable. We hypothesized that the novel technique of high-magnification chromoscopic pouchoscopy (HMCP) may permit accurate anatomical localization of this high risk zone in vivo and permit improved biopsy accuracy.

Patients and methods

We studied 132 patients with IPAA using HMCP. Three distinct zones were defined using magnification endoscopy: ATZ, appearing as a linear cellular marix; columnar cuff, identifiable by a type I crypt pattern; and ileal pouch body, appearing as villous projections. Quadrantic biopsies of these zones were taken in addition to biopsies of any other lesions noted.

Results

A total of 1586 biopsies were taken from zones 1–3 (median, 12; range, 5–16 per patient). Overall biopsy-targeting accuracies using magnification guidance as compared with histopathology were 82%, 73% and 91% for the ATZ, cuff and pouch body, respectively. No dysplasia was identified in the quadrantic surveillance biopsies. Histologically confirmed columnar metaplasia was visualized in vivo using magnification chromoscopy. Patients with IPAA >3 years’ duration were more likely to have pouch reservoir columnar metaplasia as compared to those <3 years (p<0.01). Pouch reservoir metaplasia was associated with a pre-morbid diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma within the premorbid colectomy specimen (p<0.001).

Conclusions

This is the first study to evaluate this novel application of high magnification chromoscopy. Magnification pouchoscopy is a valid predictor of ATZ and cuff anatomy, permitting accurate biopsy targeting. Further randomized studies validating this technique with an emphasis on dysplasia detection in larger cohorts are required.