, Volume 17, Issue 6, p 533

Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) in molecular targeted therapy

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The development of molecularly targeted agents has been a key factor in recent advances in cancer therapy, and some of these agents are now considered standard therapies for various types of carcinoma. The toxicity of molecularly targeted agents is different from that of cytotoxic antitumor agents. ILD in Japanese patients treated with molecular targeting agents has been the focus of many studies.

Among tyrosine kinase inhibitors, gefitinib and erlotinib are associated with an increase in the incidence of ILD in Japanese patients. Gefitinib-induced DLI was reported to be 3.5 % in a retrospective analysis and 5.8 % in a prospective study of Japanese patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a cohort study including gefitinib and chemotherapy in Japanese patients with NSCLC, the naive cumulative incidence rates at the end of 12-week follow-up were 4.0 % for gefitinib versus 2.1 % for conventional chemotherapy.

Little was known about drug-induced ILD when acute ILD-type events de