Copy number variation in the cattle genome
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- Liu, G.E. & Bickhart, D.M. Funct Integr Genomics (2012) 12: 609. doi:10.1007/s10142-012-0289-9
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Copy number variations (CNVs) are gains and losses of genomic sequence greater than 50 bp between two individuals of a species. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are more frequent, CNVs impact a higher percentage of genomic sequence and have potentially greater effects, including the changing of gene structure and dosage, altering gene regulation and exposing recessive alleles. In particular, segmental duplications (SDs) were shown to be one of the catalysts and hotspots for CNV formation. Substantial progress has been made in understanding CNVs in mammals, especially in humans and rodents. CNVs have been shown to be important in both normal phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Recently, interest in CNV study has extended into domesticated animals, including cattle. Multiple genome-wide cattle CNV studies have been carried out using both microarray and next generation sequencing technologies. Integration of SD and CNV results with SNP and other datasets are beginning to reveal impacts of CNVs on cattle domestication, health, and production traits.