, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 21-34
Date: 24 May 2011

Multigene Barcoding and Phylogeny of Geographically Widespread Muricids (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) Along the Coast of China

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Abstract

The identification and phylogeny of muricids have been in a state of confusion for a long time due to the morphological convergence and plasticity. DNA-based identification and phylogeny methods often offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, we employ a DNA barcoding method to identify 17 known and easily confused muricid species (120 individuals) from the whole China coast based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA sequences, and nuclear ITS-1 and 28S rRNA sequences. The phylogeny of muricid subfamilies is also analysed based on all mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. The universal COI and 16S rRNA primers did not work broadly across the study group, necessitating the redesign of muricid specific COI and 16S rRNA primers in this paper. Our study demonstrates that COI gene is a suitable marker for barcoding muricids, which can distinguish all muricid species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, ITS-1 and 28S rRNA data also provide good support for the species resolution observed in COI data. The relationships of muricid subfamilies are resolved based on the separate and combined gene data that showed the monophyly of each the subfamilies Ergalataxinae, Rapaninae, Ocenebrinae and Muricinae, especially that Ergalataxinae did not fall within Rapaninae.