Myxinidin, A Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from the Epidermal Mucus of Hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L.
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Subramanian, S., Ross, N.W. & MacKinnon, S.L. Mar Biotechnol (2009) 11: 748. doi:10.1007/s10126-009-9189-y
- 586 Downloads
Fish epidermal mucus contains innate immune components that provide a first line of defense against various infectious pathogens. This study reports the bioassay-guided fractionation and characterization of a novel antimicrobial peptide, myxinidin, from the acidic epidermal mucus extract of hagfish (Myxine glutinosa L.). Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry revealed that myxinidin consists of 12 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 1,327.68 Da. Myxinidin showed activity against a broad range of bacteria and yeast pathogens at minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 µg/mL. Screened pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium C610, Escherichia coli D31, Aeromonas salmonicida A449, Yersinia ruckeri 96-4, and Listonella anguillarum 02-11 were found to be highly sensitive to myxinidin at the MBC of 1.0–2.5 µg/mL; Staphylococcus epidermis C621 and yeast (Candida albicans C627) had an MBC of 10.0 µg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of myxinidin was found to be two to 16 times more active than a potent fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, pleurocidin (NRC-17), against most of the screened pathogens. The microbicidal activity of myxinidin was retained in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) at concentrations up to 0.3 M and had no hemolytic activity against mammalian red blood cells. These results suggest that myxinidin may have potential applications in fish and human therapeutics.