, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 748-757
Date: 31 Mar 2009

Myxinidin, A Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from the Epidermal Mucus of Hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L.

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Fish epidermal mucus contains innate immune components that provide a first line of defense against various infectious pathogens. This study reports the bioassay-guided fractionation and characterization of a novel antimicrobial peptide, myxinidin, from the acidic epidermal mucus extract of hagfish (Myxine glutinosa L.). Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry revealed that myxinidin consists of 12 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 1,327.68 Da. Myxinidin showed activity against a broad range of bacteria and yeast pathogens at minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 µg/mL. Screened pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium C610, Escherichia coli D31, Aeromonas salmonicida A449, Yersinia ruckeri 96-4, and Listonella anguillarum 02-11 were found to be highly sensitive to myxinidin at the MBC of 1.0–2.5 µg/mL; Staphylococcus epidermis C621 and yeast (Candida albicans C627) had an MBC of 10.0 µg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of myxinidin was found to be two to 16 times more active than a potent fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, pleurocidin (NRC-17), against most of the screened pathogens. The microbicidal activity of myxinidin was retained in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) at concentrations up to 0.3 M and had no hemolytic activity against mammalian red blood cells. These results suggest that myxinidin may have potential applications in fish and human therapeutics.