Original Article

Cognition, Technology & Work

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 3-18

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Towards a dynamic balance between humans and automation: authority, ability, responsibility and control in shared and cooperative control situations

  • Frank FlemischAffiliated with(DLR-ITS), RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics IAW, Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE Email author 
  • , Matthias HeesenAffiliated withDLR Institute of Transportation Systems
  • , Tobias HesseAffiliated withDLR Institute of Transportation Systems
  • , Johann KelschAffiliated withDLR Institute of Transportation Systems
  • , Anna SchiebenAffiliated withDLR Institute of Transportation Systems
  • , Johannes BellerAffiliated withDLR Institute of Transportation Systems


Progress enables the creation of more automated and intelligent machines with increasing abilities that open up new roles between humans and machines. Only with a proper design for the resulting cooperative human–machine systems, these advances will make our lives easier, safer and enjoyable rather than harder and miserable. Starting from examples of natural cooperative systems, the paper investigates four cornerstone concepts for the design of such systems: ability, authority, control and responsibility, as well as their relationship to each other and to concepts like levels of automation and autonomy. Consistency in the relations between these concepts is identified as an important quality for the system design. A simple graphical tool is introduced that can help to visualize the cornerstone concepts and their relations in a single diagram. Examples from the automotive domain, where a cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles is under investigation, demonstrate the application of the concepts and the tool. Transitions in authority and control, e.g. initiated by changes in the ability of human or machine, are identified as key challenges. A sufficient consistency of the mental models of human and machines, not only in the system use but also in the design and evaluation, can be a key enabler for a successful dynamic balance between humans and machines.


Assistant systems Automation Human-machine cooperation Adaptive automation Levels of automation Balanced automation