Date: 31 Mar 2007

Clean technologies: implementation and technology transfer challenges

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Introduction

Clean Technologies generally refer to: technologies that optimize use of resources (water, energy, land), minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on current and future economic and social societal needs. Thus, implementation of such technologies and associated challenges are of considerable interest from environmental, economic, and long-term societal view points.

New technology implementation or technology transfer refers to the process by which science and technology are transferred from one individual or group to another that incorporates this new technology into a new or improved process, product, system or way of doing something (Martyniuk et al. 2003). The diffusion of technology occurs through different channels and involves various market agents such as private vendors, customers, consultants and other firms, as well as public technology centers, government laboratories and universities (Lile and Toman 1997).