Date: 04 Jul 2013

Adequacy of an evidence-based treatment guideline for complicated urinary tract infections in the Netherlands and the effectiveness of guideline adherence

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Guideline recommendations on empirical antibiotic treatment are based on the literature, expert opinion, expected pathogens and resistance data, but their adequacy in the real-life setting is often unknown. We investigated the adequacy of the Dutch evidence-based guideline-recommended treatment options for patients with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) 2 years after guideline publication and, additionally, the adequacy of actually prescribed empirical therapy for patients treated with guideline-adherent versus non-guideline-adherent therapy. A retrospective, observational multicentre study in the Netherlands included 810 patients with a complicated UTI without special conditions and 174 with a urinary catheter. The susceptibility patterns of cultured uropathogens were compared with guideline-recommended treatment options, which included specific recommendations for patients with a catheter, and with actually prescribed empirical therapy. We considered inadequate coverage rates below 10 % as acceptable. Of the recommended regimens for patients with a UTI without other conditions, only the guideline-recommended combination of amoxicillin–gentamicin was acceptable (inadequate coverage rate 6 %). For patients with a catheter, inadequate coverage rates of recommended regimens ranged from 3 to 24 %. In patients with a UTI without other conditions, actually prescribed guideline-adherent therapy resulted in less broad-spectrum but not in less adequate therapy; in patients with a catheter, actually prescribed guideline-adherent therapy resulted in a higher coverage rate than those prescribed non-guideline-adherent therapy. Due to the continuously changing resistance rates and differences between the epidemiologies of uropathogens assumed in the guideline and those in real life, regular real-life assessments of recommended treatment options are necessary. Guideline adherence seems to be effective for increasing coverage rates without prescribing unnecessarily broad regimens.

This study was presented, in part, as a poster presentation at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), Boston, Massachusetts, October 2011 (31664).