Leishmaniasis: new insights from an old and neglected disease
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- Antinori, S., Schifanella, L. & Corbellino, M. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis (2012) 31: 109. doi:10.1007/s10096-011-1276-0
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Leishmaniases are a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There is growing evidence that the true incidence of the disease is underestimated, especially in hyperendemic regions. Moreover, climate changes together with the increasing movement of humans and animals raise concerns about the possible introduction of Leishmania infection in previously spared areas. The disease is emerging in immunocompromised patients undergoing bone marrow or solid organ transplantation or treatment with biologic drugs. Furthermore, the deployment of military troops and travel to endemic areas are associated with the observation of a growing number of patients with cutaneous disease. Improvement in diagnostic methods, both in the field and in specialized laboratories, has been obtained through the implementation of molecular amplification methods and using the rK39 antigen as the substrate. Finally, new therapeutic approaches are gaining attention, such as the use of miltefosine for cutaneous leishmaniasis and paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis, as well as the use of various antileishmanial drugs in combination.