Pneumococcal meningitis in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation
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- Bingen, E., Levy, C., Varon, E. et al. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis (2008) 27: 191. doi:10.1007/s10096-007-0417-y
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The French Pediatric Infectious Diseases Group set up an active surveillance network to analyze the clinical and biological features of pneumococcal meningitis and the impact of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). From 2001 to 2005, 234 pediatric wards working with 166 microbiology laboratories enrolled all children with pneumococcal meningitis. Risk factors, signs and symptoms, vaccination status, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, treatments and case fatality rates were recorded. One hundred and sixty-nine centers (169/234) reported 616 cases, median age was 0.9 years and 67.2% of children were ≤2 years old. Underlying conditions were present in 13.1% of cases. The proportion of penicillin non-susceptible strains was 48.7%. Vancomycin plus a third-generation cephalosporin was prescribed in 92.7% of cases, and steroids were given before antibiotic treatment in 16.5% of cases. The case fatality rate was 10.8% overall and was not related to age, antibiotic susceptibility or steroid use. In children 2 to 24 months old compared to the prevaccinal period (2001–2002) a decrease of 28.4% of the number of cases was observed in 2005 (P < 0.05). Among children 2 to 24 months old, the proportion of serotypes covered by the PCV7 fell from 39/57 (68.4%) in 2001–2002 to 19/45 (42.2%) in 2005, while the proportion of non-vaccine serotypes and related serotypes increased respectively from 9/57 (15.8%) and 9/57 (15.8%) in 2001–2002 to 14/45 (31.1%) and 12/45 (26.7%) in 2005. Among 52 cases of pneumococcal meningitis that have occurred in vaccinated children (≥1 dose) with PCV7, 7 were due by vaccine serotypes. This study provides data on underlying conditions, penicillin susceptibility, serotype evolution according to vaccination status and risk factors for mortality for pneumococcal meningitis in children from 2001–2005 in France.