Achromobacter xylosoxidans Bacteremia: A 10-Year Analysis of 54 Cases

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Abstract

Fifty-four cases of Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia diagnosed over a 10-year period in patients from 2 months to 87 years of age were reviewed. Fifty-two episodes were nosocomial. The most frequent underlying condition was neoplasm (solid or hematological). The source of infection was a contaminated intravenous catheter in 35 patients (60%) and pneumonia in 6 patients. Eight (15%) patients died. The only risk factors significantly associated with mortality were age over 65 years and neutropenia. The results of in vitro susceptibility studies of the isolates showed that antibiotic therapy with antipseudomonal penicillins or carbapenems would be a reasonable choice. An epidemiological study conducted in the hemodialysis unit showed Achromobacter xylosoxidans in tap water and on the hands of two healthcare workers but not in the hemodialysis systems. Patients were probably contaminated when healthcare workers manipulated the intravenous catheters without wearing gloves.