A newly developed full-scale shear block specimen was used to simultaneously determine the shear strength and shear modulus of glued-laminated timber. The shear modulus was calculated using the shear strain distribution measured by means of digital image correlation. To obtain the exact relationship between shear modulus and shear strength, the shear strain in the intended shear plane was measured. A relatively high correlation coefficient of 0.75 was found between the shear modulus and nominal shear strength in two types of glued-laminated timber tested: sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Good correlation was also found between the density of middle lamina and shear strength. However, the relationships to density showed species dependence, which was not observed in the relationship between shear modulus and shear strength.