This is the first article to report the evaluation of a natural product used as an antisilverfish agent. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina), primitive wingless insects, feed on a variety of materials, including paper, cotton, starch, and cereals. They can be a problem in libraries and other places where books, documents, and papers are stored. In this pilot study, the essential oil from leaves of Cryptomeria japonica was investigated to test its properties as a silverfish repellent and insecticide. The results from a repellency bioassay show that the essential oil significantly repelled silverfish. The repellent activity was 80% at a dosage of 0.01 mg/cm3. When silverfish were exposed to a concentration of 0.16 mg/cm3 of essential oil, they were killed within 10h. The chemical composition of essential oil, the emissions from a test chamber, and the residue left on filter papers previously soaked with the essential oil in a chamber were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The components of the essential oil were found to be: elemol (18.22%), 16-kaurene (11.63%), 3-carene (9.66%), sabinene (9.37%), 4-terpineol (9.06%), β-eudesmol (5.70%), α-pinene (5.62%), and limonene (5.26%). Only some constituents of the essential oil compounds collected by solid-phase microextraction were found to be emitted in the test chamber. The main constituents were: 3-carene (21.03%), p-cymene (10.95%), limonene (9.49%), β-myrcene (9.39%), γ-terpinene (9.10%), α-terpinene (8.57%), and 4-terpineol (7.97%).