Neurological Sciences

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 867–873

Prevalence of patent foramen ovale in ischemic stroke in Italy: the SISIFO study

  • Domenico Consoli
  • Maurizio Paciaroni
  • Marco Aguggia
  • Maurizio Melis
  • Giovanni Malferrari
  • Simone Vidale
  • Paolo Cerrato
  • Simona Sacco
  • Carlo Gandolfo
  • Paolo Bovi
  • Carlo Serrati
  • Massimo Del Sette
  • Anna Cavallini
  • Marina Diomedi
  • Paolo Postorino
  • Stefano Ricci
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10072-013-1615-2

Cite this article as:
Consoli, D., Paciaroni, M., Aguggia, M. et al. Neurol Sci (2014) 35: 867. doi:10.1007/s10072-013-1615-2
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Abstract

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common congenital anatomical defect in the general population with a mean prevalence of 20 %. Transcranial Doppler sonography and echocardiography, both with infusion of agitated saline as an echo contrast, have been introduced for the diagnosis of PFO. Transesophageal echocardiography is considered the gold standard. Several studies have suggested an association between cryptogenetic stroke and PFO, but the role of this condition as a risk factor for stroke is still debated. The aims of this prospective multicentre study are the evaluation of PFO prevalence in the whole ischemic stroke population and the identification of a stroke recurrence profile risk in patients with PFO. All consecutive patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke and with a confirmed diagnosis at discharge are eligible cases for the study. Demographic and vascular risk factors are registered. Clinical severity is summarized by the National Institute of Health stroke scale. Echocardiographic and transcranial studies are performed in each patient to detect the presence of PFO. Prevalence of PFO will be calculated with 95 % CIs. Univariate analysis will be performed to detect the correlation of PFO with different registered factors and multivariable analysis with PFO as independent variable. The present study should contribute to better identify the role of PFO in ischemic stroke risk and recurrence-related events. Qualifying findings of the study are represented by the high number of enrolled patients, the prospective methodology of the study and the presence of secondary instrumental endpoints.

Keywords

StrokeClinical trialEpidemiologyIschemic strokeRisk factorsUltrasoundPatent foramen ovaleCardioembolic stroke

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Domenico Consoli
    • 1
    • 11
  • Maurizio Paciaroni
    • 6
    • 11
  • Marco Aguggia
    • 7
    • 11
  • Maurizio Melis
    • 8
    • 11
  • Giovanni Malferrari
    • 9
    • 11
  • Simone Vidale
    • 10
    • 11
  • Paolo Cerrato
    • 10
    • 11
  • Simona Sacco
    • 13
    • 11
  • Carlo Gandolfo
    • 3
    • 11
  • Paolo Bovi
    • 12
    • 11
  • Carlo Serrati
    • 14
    • 11
  • Massimo Del Sette
    • 5
    • 11
  • Anna Cavallini
    • 2
    • 11
  • Marina Diomedi
    • 15
  • Paolo Postorino
    • 1
    • 11
  • Stefano Ricci
    • 4
    • 11
  1. 1.UO Neurologia Ospedale “G. Jazzolino” Piazzale FlemingVibo ValentiaItaly
  2. 2.UC Malattie Cerebrovascolari/Stroke Unit IRCCS INN CPaviaItaly
  3. 3.DINOGMI, Stroke-UnitUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  4. 4.UO Neurologia ASL 1 dell’ Umbria OspedaleCittà di Castello (PG)Italy
  5. 5.Neurology Unit S. Andrea HospitalLa SpeziaItaly
  6. 6.Stroke UnitPerugia UniversityPerugiaItaly
  7. 7.Neurologia e Stroke Unit Ospedale Cardinal Massaja AstiAstiItaly
  8. 8.SC Neurologia-Stroke Unit Azienda Ospedaliera G.BrotzuCagliariItaly
  9. 9.Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Department of Neuromotor PhysiologyArcispedale Santa Maria Nuova IRCCSReggio EmiliaItaly
  10. 10.Azienda Ospedaliera S. AnnaComoItaly
  11. 11.AOU “Molinette”TurinItaly
  12. 12.SSO Stroke Unit UO Neurologia DAI di NeuroscienzeAOU Integrata VeronaVeronaItaly
  13. 13.Department of NeurologyUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  14. 14.AO “S. Martino”GenovaItaly
  15. 15.Uoc Stroke Unit, Dipartimento di NeuroscienzeUniversita’ Degli Studi di Roma tor VergataRomeItaly